100 mm 2 ) from the rock art panel using a battery-operated rotary tool equipped with a diamond saw blade. In the laboratory, we micro-excavated each sample in arbitrary spits extending over the surface of each speleothem, creating a series of four (LBLGJ1) and five (LBLGJ2) aliquots per sample measuring less than 1 mm in thickness. The resultant sections consist of two continuous microstratigraphic profiles extending from the outer surface of each speleothem through the pigment layers and into the underlying rock face. The samples overlying both the pig figure and the hand stencil comprise multiple layers of dense and nonporous calcite. In the case of both sampled coralloids, we clearly observed the pigment layer corresponding to each artwork (the red pig figure and the hand stencil) across the entire length of each sample. In total, we obtained nine U-series age determinations for the red pig figure and the hand stencil overlying it (Table 1 and Fig. 6, D and E). Sample LBLGJ1 yielded an older age at the surface of the sample. Because this aliquot (LBLGJ1.1) includes parts of the weathered and friable crust of get it on the speleothem, we interpret this older age as being caused by partial leaching of uranium at the surface. Samples LBLGJ1.2 and LBLGJ1.3 show a slightly reversed age profile (<100>
2000 years). We also interpret this anomaly as verso by-product of our microsampling strategy and the convoluted process of coralloid speleothem formation (Materials and Methods). The internal growth structure revealed con the ciclocross section (Fig. 6E) is obviously more complex, implying per high probability of ciclocampestre-growth layers mixing durante different proportions among different aliquots during the microsampling process. We therefore consider that the oldest minimum U-series date of 32 ka given by subsample LBLGJ2.4 represents the minimum age of the hand stencil, whereas the maximum age for this particular artwork (73.4 ka) is provided by the U-series date for underlying sample LBLGJ2.5. Because the hand stencil is superimposed on apice of the large red pig painting, we are able puro bracket the age of this figurative animal depiction sicuro between 73.4 and 32 ka.
100 mm 2 ) are shown durante situ in (B) and (C), respectively; ciclocampestre sections with U-series dating results are shown in (D) and (E). Subsamples LBLGJ1.4 (D) and LBLGJ2.5 (E) were both collected below the pigment lines and thus provide maximum ages for the artworks. Uncertainties reported at 2?. Our dating results indicate that the suid figure was painted between 73.4 and 32 ka. Photo credits: (A) Per. Aubert, Griffith University.
194 esatto 118 ka (1). These implements are assumed puro reflect early colonization of the island by an archaic and now-extinct hominin, not H. sapiens (1). The notion that AMH could have been established at such an early time in Sulawesi or elsewhere mediante Wallacea, or the wider region, is contentious, but not a priori impossible. On the basis of the fossil evidence, it is now contended that our species had emerged in Africa by 300 ka (28). Moreover, some archaeological and genomic datazione imply that H. sapiens was established durante eastern Oriente by 120 ka (29). AMH were also possibly durante northernmost Sunda at around the same time (30). On the basis of the presently available evidence, we are unable to definitively conclude that the dated figurative rock art depiction from Leang Tedongnge is the handiwork of cognitively “modern” members of our species. However, this seems esatto be the most likely explanation given the sophistication of this early representational artwork and the fact that figurative depiction has so far only been attributed to AMH everywhere else sopra the world.
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